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2008年12月1日 星期一

菲律賓《菲律賓的野鴨》首日實寄封

Philippine《Philippine Wild Ducks》FDC



綠頭鴨,學名Anas platyrhynchos,又名大頭綠(雄)、蒲鴨(雌),是家鴨的野生種。綠頭鴨也是地球上飛得第五快的鳥類,達到每小時65公里。
綠頭鴨體形中等,約58厘米。雄鳥頭及頸部深綠色,並有光澤,第一年的亞成體頭顯黑色;頸基部有一白環與栗色的胸部相連;上背、肩和脅部為棕色,腹、翅為灰色;腰至尾上覆羽為黑色;兩對中央尾羽向上彎曲呈勾狀,外側尾羽為白色;翼鏡呈藍紫色,前後有黑色邊緣,邊緣外有白色邊,靜息時和飛行時可見;喙黃綠色,腳橘黃色。雌鳥通體褐色斑駁,頭部有黑褐色的貫眼紋,眉紋細且呈淺褐色;上體羽色較深,羽毛具棕黃或白色的「V」形邊緣;翼鏡同雄性;喙深褐色。虹膜為褐色。

小水鴨,學名Anas carolinensis,是雁鴨科冬候鳥中體型最小的一種,待的時間也最長,但是卻不會像花嘴鴨或綠頭鴨一樣反而變成了留鳥
[型態特徵]體長約38cm。嘴、腳黑色。雌雄鳥非繁殖羽差異甚小,繁殖期時,雄鳥羽色轉為鮮豔。
雄鳥繁殖羽:頭至頸部栗褐色,眼周圍暗綠色,延伸至後頭側,外緣有淡色細邊。背部灰色,有暗色細紋。體側有一白色線斑甚為醒目。尾下覆羽黑色,兩側黃色,呈三角形。飛行時,翼鏡綠色,上下緣白色,而上緣略寬。
雌鳥:全身暗褐色,羽緣淡色。過眼線黑色。
雄鳥非繁殖羽:似雌鳥,儘鏡翼上緣白色帶較寬。
[生態習性]冬候鳥,大約每年9月間由西伯利亞等高緯度地區跋涉而來,一直待到翌年的4月離開。飛行時,振翅速度較其他鴨種快。
[棲地環境]普遍出現於河口、沙洲、湖泊、沼澤、水田及內陸溪流地帶。

鳳頭潛鴨,學名Aythya fuligula,又名澤鳧、鳳頭鴨子、黑頭四鴨。
[生態環境]鳳頭潛鴨常活動於內陸的河流、池塘和其他開闊水面,夜間棲息于岸邊的軟泥灘,或者在離岸不遠的水面上漂浮,他們喜歡比較清澈的深水環境,在淺水和污染比較嚴重的水域很難見到他們的身影,鳳頭潛鴨在陸上活動非常笨拙,亦很少見。其上路活動。遷徙季節和越冬季節常集成大群,與紅頭潛鴨、青頭潛鴨、斑背潛鴨混群。
[分佈地域]鳳頭潛鴨繁殖于西伯利亞以東地區、薩哈林島、歐洲北部、英倫三島、冰島以及中國東北西北部、中部、西南部;遷徙時可以在整個歐亞大陸的中南部,包括中國的新疆中西部、青海東部、西藏、甘肅四川西北部、華北大部看到本物種,在日本列島、菲律賓、中國雲南以東,山東半島以南的華中華南大部,非洲的東北和西北部越冬。
[特徵]鳳頭潛鴨體形略小於紅頭潛鴨,但是這種差別不大,偌非兩種潛鴨同時出現在視野中可以直接對比,是很難看出體形差異的。與綠頭鴨相比,本體長僅僅為後者的2/3左右,雄性鳳頭潛鴨的頭頸部黑色,並具有紫色的金屬光澤,最具特徵的是它的頭頂有一根略長而下垂的「小辮」,這就是所謂的鳳頭,隨頭部運動不時擺動的鳳頭令本物種看起來非常俏皮可愛。腰胸背部的羽毛也都是深黑色,下背部的羽毛上有時帶有纖細的乳白色斑點,腹部和脅部的顏色則為乳白色,上下體顏色對比非常鮮明。外側次級飛羽白色,在黑色的翅膀上形成了白色的翼鏡。雌性羽色分佈與雄鳥接近,但顏色啞暗且沒有金屬光澤,雌性頭上也有一個小辮,但沒有雄性那麼明顯,因而雌鳥整體看起來也就沒有雄性那麼靈動。本物種虹膜黃色喙鉛灰色,腳蹼黑色。當他們活動在湖面上時,無論雄雌尾部都是向下托垂到水面以下的。

棉鳧(Nettapus coromandelianus),又名棉鴨,是印度、巴基斯坦、東南亞及澳洲的細小棲鴨。
[描述]棉鳧可算是世界上最細小的水鳥,只重160克及長26厘米。牠們的羽毛主要呈白色。鳥喙短而像鵝的喙,底部較深。雄性棉鳧繁殖時毛色有黑綠色光澤,頭部、頸部及下身主要呈白色,有明顯的黑色頸圈及白色的覆尾羽。頭圓及腳短。飛行時,雄鳥雙翼呈綠色及有白帶,在大群樹鴨中亦易於確認。雌鳥較淡色,沒有黑色頸圈,只有窄小的白色覆尾羽。在非繁殖期間,雄鳥的羽毛與雌性的相似。
[分佈]棉鳧一般都不會遷徙,但在潮濕的季節會分散開來。生活在中國的棉鳧則會向南方遷徙。牠們在樹穴中築巢,每次產8-15顆蛋。
棉鳧在亞洲很是普遍,但在澳洲的數量則似乎在逐步下降。
棉鳧一般生活在湖泊、雨水溝等。由於棉鳧較為溫馴,所以很多時都會生活在人類附近。

The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), probably the best-known and most recognizable of all ducks, is a dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe, Asia, New Zealand (where it is currently the most common duck species), and Australia. It is strongly migratory in the northern parts of its breeding range, and winters farther south. For example, in North America it winters south to Mexico, but also regularly strays into Central America and the Caribbean between September and May.

The Green-winged Teal (GWT, Anas carolinensis) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in the northern areas of North America except on the Aleutian Islands. It was considered conspecific with the Common Teal for some time, and the issue is still being reviewed by the American Ornithologists' Union [1]; based on this the IUCN and BirdLife International (BirdLife International, 2004) do not accept it as a separate species at present. However, nearly all other authorities consider it distinct nowadays, based on behavioral (Laurie-Ahlberg & McKinney 1979), morphological (Livezey, 1991), and molecular (Johnson & Sorenson 1999) evidence (discussed by Sangster et al., 2002).

The Tufted Duck, Aythya fuligula, is a medium-sized diving duck with a population of close to one million birds.
The adult male is all black except for white flanks and a blue-grey bill. It has an obvious head tuft that gives the species its name. The adult female is brown with paler flanks, and is more easily confused with other diving ducks. In particular, some have white around the bill base which resembles the scaup species, although the white is never as extensive as in those ducks.
The only duck which is at all similar is the drake North American Ring-necked Duck, which however has a different head shape, no tuft and greyish flanks.
The Tufted Duck is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

The Cotton Pygmy Goose or the Cotton Teal, Nettapus coromandelianus is a small perching duck which breeds in India, Pakistan, southeast Asia and south to northern Australia. It is locally known as Girri, Girria, Girja (Hindi); Gurgura (Etawah); Bali hans (Bengal); Bhullia hans (Bangladesh); Dandana (Orissa); Ade, Atla (Ratnagiri); Naher, Keeke, Chuwa (Nowgong, Assam); Baher, Kararhi (Sind, Pakistan).


這封也不是首日實寄
不過聽說菲律賓的首日封也是發了郵票之後才有...